Categories
Security

6 Million Password Attacks in 16 Hours and How to Block Them

Last week in the President’s cyber security op-ed in the Wall Street Journal he implored Americans to move beyond simple passwords and to enable two factor authentication or cellphone sign-in.

One of the things we monitor at Wordfence is the number of brute force attacks on WordPress websites. Brute force attacks are password guessing attacks, where an attacker tries to sign in as you by guessing your password.

To give you an idea of the level of attacks in the wild, we gathered data on brute force attacks across the sites we protect within a 16 hour Window starting Sunday until Monday (yesterday) at 2pm Pacific time.

Here are the highlights. Remember, this is only over a 16 hour window which is relatively short.

During this time we saw a total of 6,611,909 attacks targeting 72,532 individual websites. We saw attacks during this time from 8,941 unique IP addresses and the average number of attacks per victim website was 6.26.

The total number of attacking IP’s was actually 55,391 but we only counted IP’s that generated more than 10 failed logins across all sites. That way we excluded accidental login failures.

So where are these attacks coming from. The results are not what you would expect. The table below shows the total number of attacks (brute force login attempts in this case) ordered by country:

Brute Force Attacks by Country during our 16 hour window.

Brute Force Attacks by Country.

 

The Ukraine is the top offender, but there is a specific reason for this which we explain below. The United States is second. Our hypothesis is that this is where most data centers are based and therefore most compromised sites, from which attacks are launched, will be based in the USA.

You’ll notice that the Ukraine is at the top of the list. Over 86% of those attacks come from just two IP addresses at a Ukrainian hosting provider. These two IP’s generated 2.4 Million attacks between the two of them.

During just 16 hours, they targeted 37,454 unique victims. 

The two attackers that we analyzed are based at a Ukrainian hosting provider. They caused their Ukrainian hosting provider to account for more attacks than the next 19 hosting providers, combined.

We currently aggregate attack information at a rate of 114 attacks per second. Analyzing data like this at Wordfence helps us understand the changing attack landscape and how to better protect our customers.

What can you do to protect yourself?

Firstly, make sure you’re running the free or premium version of Wordfence and that you have the “Wordfence security network” feature enabled.  It is enabled out of the box in Wordfence. With this feature enabled, if you get a failed login from an IP address, Wordfence will contact our cloud services to find out if that IP is one of the attackers we know about (like the two above). If it is, it will immediately be blocked from signing in, protecting your site from a brute force attack. The attacker won’t even get the standard 3 or 5 tries before they are locked out.

Wordfence also provides login attempt limiting out of the box in the free and premium versions. WordPress does not do this by default, so make sure you have this enabled.

Next, as Obama suggests, enable cellphone sign-in for your WordPress website, also known as two factor authentication or 2FA. This feature is available in the Premium version of Wordfence and is easy to enable. You can learn more about cellphone sign-in on our documentation website.

Perform a Password Audit

Wordfence Premium gives you the ability to securely audit the strength of all your site member passwords, including your administrators. To launch this feature last year, we worked closely with our partners to build a supercomputer with over 40 Terraflops of processing power. That is faster than the fastest computer in the world in 2003.

gpusRelease2

Wordfence’s custom built password auditing hardware is pictured above. It is based in our data center in Lynnwood, Washington and uses very high performance GPU’s to audit the security of your passwords.

 

By performing a password audit with Wordfence, you can launch a simulated password cracking attack on all site member passwords including administrators. Wordfence will then provide a report of which accounts suffer from weak passwords.

Password Auditing is completely secure and uses a combination of hashing and public key cryptography to protect your data. Once you receive the results, Wordfence provides a way for you to notify users they have a weak password or to force a password change.

If you haven’t completed a password audit on your website, upgrade to Wordfence Premium and start an audit today.

Go Deep on Password Security

Password security is a big subject. To fully understand why strong passwords are important and how attackers target weak passwords, you need to gain an understanding of hashing, password salts and attack methods like rainbow tables, how salts work and why modern GPU’s give attackers a huge advantage.

As part of our free WordPress Security Learning Center, we have created a comprehensive lesson that explains all of this and much more, including emerging improvements in password algorithms. The lesson is designed to be a place that teachers and university professors can send their students to get a primer on password security and password authentication.

If you invest the time to read this lesson, you will come away with a complete understanding of many fundamental security concepts that you will use throughout your career as a systems administrator.

Be warned, we don’t pull any punches. So if you do decide to dive in, make sure you make yourself a cup of something warm and allocate at least an hour to read the entire lesson.

Once complete, you will have a well grounded understanding of password security, password authentication and modern attack techniques. We even throw in some number theory to help you understand what makes a password strong.

You can find the full lesson on Password Authentication and Password Cracking by clicking here.

As always, please share your thoughts below and thanks for being part of Wordfence and our community.

The post 6 Million Password Attacks in 16 Hours and How to Block Them appeared first on Wordfence.

Categories
Security

How Attackers Gain Access to WordPress Sites

On this blog we write a lot about different vulnerabilities that could lead to site compromise. In our Learning Center we go deep on a myriad of important topics related to WordPress security. Our handy checklist, for example, includes 42 items you really should be paying attention to. But surely not all 42 items are equally important, right? In today’s post we dive into some very interesting data we gathered a couple of weeks ago in a survey, letting the facts tell us what matters most.

The question we asked in the survey was:

If you know how your site was compromised please describe how the attackers gained access.

The answers were free form text, so we manually categorized the answers. If the respondent expressed any doubt in their answer, we categorized them as uncertain.

Most Site Owners Don’t Know

Of the 1,032 survey respondents who answered this question, 61.5% didn’t know how the Attacker compromised their website. That is a not a huge surprise given that the large majority of respondents cleaned their sites themselves, but it is troubling. It is impossible to be confident that you have cleaned your site completely or that the vulnerability doesn’t still exist without knowing how the site was compromised in the first place.

For the site owners who did figure out how the attackers entered, here is what the breakdown looks like:

hacked_website_how_compromised

In the balance of this post we’re going to focus primarily on the top two risks. Because if you can protect yourself against plugin vulnerabilities and brute force attacks, you are accounting for over 70% of the problem.

Plugins Are Your Biggest Risk

Plugins play a big part in making WordPress as popular as it is today. As of this writing there are 43,719 plugins available for download in the official WordPress plugin directory. That is an incredible selection of plug and play software. But you obviously need to be careful with them, as plugin vulnerabilities represented 55.9% of the known entry points reported by respondents.

Some tips for avoiding plugin vulnerabilities:

Keep them updated

Reputable plugin authors fix vulnerabilities very quickly when discovered. By keeping them up to date you insure that you benefit from fixes before attackers can exploit them. We recommend that you check for updates at least weekly. In addition we recommend that you pay attention to the alerts generated by Wordfence scans. Wordfence alerts you when your plugins need to be updated.

Don’t use abandoned plugins

You are relying on the plugin developer to insure that their code is free of vulnerabilities. If they are no longer providing updates there is a high likelihood that there are vulnerabilities that have not been fixed. We recommend avoiding plugins that have not been updated in over 6 months. For plugins you have already installed we recommend you conduct an audit at least quarterly to make sure none of your plugins have been abandoned by their authors.

Only download plugins from reputable sites
If you are going to download plugins somewhere other than the official WordPress repository, you need to make sure the website is reputable. One of the easiest ways for attackers to compromise your website is to trick you into loading malware yourself. An attacker will do this by setting up a website that looks legitimate and getting you to download a compromised or ‘nulled’ plugin.

Use these tips to help determine whether a site is a reputable source or not:

  • Eye Test – Is the site itself professionally designed and uses clear language to describe the product? Or does it look like it was thrown together quickly by a single individual?
  • Company Information – Does the site belong to a company with the company name in the footer?
  • TOS and Privacy Policy – Do they have terms of service and a privacy policy?
  • Contact Info – Do they provide a physical contact address on the contact page or in their terms of service?
  • Domain Search – Google the domain name in quotes e.g. “example.com“. Do you find any reports of malicious activity. Add the word ‘theme’ or ‘plugin’ next to the quoted domain name in your search and see what that reveals.
  • Name Search – Do a Google search for the name of the plugin and see if any malicious activity is reported. Add the phrase “malware” or “spyware” to the search which may reveal forums discussing a malicious version of the theme being distributed.
  • Vulnerability Search – Do a search for the theme or plugin name or the vendor name and include the word “vulnerability”. This will help you find out if any vulnerabilities have been reported for the product you’re interested in or for the vendor. If they have fixed the vulnerability in a timely manner, that usually indicates they are a responsible vendor who is actively maintaining their product when problems arise.

Brute Force Attacks Are Still A Big Problem

A brute force attack is a password guessing attack. The attacker needs to both identify a valid username on your website and then guess the password for that username. Despite the availability of methods and technology that are 100% effective, this type of attack is still a huge problem, representing 16.1% of known entry points in our survey.

Some tips for avoid a hack via brute force attack:

Use Cellphone Sign-in

Also referred to as two factor authentication, this approach requires the user to not only know their password, but to have possession of their cell phone as well. This technology is 100% effective in preventing brute force attacks. Wordfence premium includes this feature today.

Don’t Use Obvious Usernames

The most obvious usernames to avoid are ‘Admin’ and ‘Administrator’, they are the most common usernames attempted in brute force attacks. Also avoid using your domain name, company name and the names of people who are writing for your blog or are listed elsewhere on your website.

Enable Login Security in Wordfence

The free version of Wordfence provides a long list of login security features. By making sure they are enabled, you benefit from the following features:

  • Enforce strong passwords
  • Locking users out after a defined number of login failures
  • Locking out users after a number of forgot password attempts
  • Locking out invalid usernames
  • Preventing WordPress from revealing valid usernames in login errors
  • Preventing username discovery through author scans
  • Immediate blocking of IPs that try to sign in as a defined list of usernames.

Other Steps to Secure your Site

Keeping everything up-to-date is key. There are no serious known vulnerabilities in the current version of WordPress core. There are however, a large number of known vulnerabilities in older WordPress versions. So keeping WordPress core up-to-date is very important. The WordPress team responds quickly when an issue is reported and so should you.

Many of our respondents indicated that their hosting account was compromised in some way. Make sure that you have a strong password policy for your CPanel account and any other server or hosting related accounts. Also ensure that you remove any applications on your server, like phpmyadmin, that aren’t absolutely necessary. If you don’t, you will have to maintain them too and ensure they’re updated and secure. Each application is another endpoint that can be attacked. The less you have to protect, the lower your risk.

Secure your workstation by keeping your operating system and applications up-to-date. Running an old vulnerable web browser, or an old version of Flash or Adobe reader can make you vulnerable to phishing attacks that can compromise your workstation. Once you workstation is compromised, an attacker can easily install a keyboard logger to capture usernames and passwords. They will gain access to much more than your WordPress website.

Store passwords securely. Do not store them in plaintext in a document online that may be compromised. You can use a product like 1Password which provides an encrypted ‘vault’ to store your passwords in.

Finally, as we’ve said before, delete any old data you don’t need from your website. This includes backup files you don’t need, log files, applications you don’t use or anything else you don’t need on your site. Old data is one more possible entry point that needs to be protected and if you can remove it, you reduce risk.

Conclusion

WordPress security is a battle fought on many fronts, as evidenced by the 42 items on our checklist and the depth and breadth of subjects in our ever evolving Learning Center. But knowledge is power, and this survey data allows us to focus on what matters most. We hope that you take the opportunity to make improvements in how you select and manage plugins on your website. We also hope that you review your approach to brute force attack protection. Small investments in these areas will pay big security dividends. Stay safe!

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